In the article below, you can read information on the metabolism of carbohydrates . The aim of this article is to show health and nutrition information strictly informative character not intended to replace the opinion of a doctor or a nutrition professional. If you have any health problems or concerns that are related to this article, the metabolism of carbohydrates , we suggest that you consult your doctor or a nutritionist.
The carbohydrate metabolism refers to the biochemistry of the different processes that are responsible for training, sharing and transformation of carbohydrates in living things.
One of the carbohydrates most important is glucose, a simple sugar or monosaccharide which is metabolized by nearly all known organisms.
Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways between species : plants synthesize carbohydrates gases from the atmosphere through photosynthesis store the energy absorbed internally. Often this carbohydrate metabolism is in the form of starch or lipids.
Animals and fungi feed on plants and use their metabolized as fuel for cellular respiration components. Oxidizing a carbohydrate gram to about 4 cal metabolized produces energy and lipid of about 9 cal. Typically, the energy obtained from metabolism (for example, the oxidation of glucose) is stored temporarily in the cells as ATP. Organisms capable of metabolizing aerobic respiration of glucose and oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.
Carbohydrates are also short – term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize fats or amino acid chains of proteins that are used as fuel. In animals, the most important carbon hydrate is glucose, so much so that the glucose level is used as the main control of the main metabolic hormone, insulin Some simple carbohydrates have their own way of enzymatic oxidation, as only some more complex carbon hydrates. The lactose , for example, is a saccharine which requires the lactate enzyme to divide it into its monosaccharide components. Animals lacking this enzyme in adulthood and can not metabolize lactose .
Carbohydrates are stored as polymers, long of glucose molecules with glycoside bonds structural support (eg, chitin, cellulose) or energy storage (glycogen eg starch). However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrate with water makes the storage of large amounts of carbohydrates is inefficient due to the high molecular weight water.
In most organisms, excess carbohydrates is regularly metabolized to form acetyl-Co, which is a raw material for the metabolism of fatty acids, fatty acids, triglycerides and other lipids are commonly used for long-term storage of energy. The hydrophobic character of lipids makes them a much more compact form of energy storage than carbohydrates carbon. However, animals, including humans, lack the enzymatic machinery so do not synthesize glucose from lipids. They all share a general formula of carbohydrates about Chignon; glucose is C6H12O6. Saccharomyces may be chemically bonded to form saccharine like sucrose and Saccharomyces such as starch and cellulose.